Categories are fine-grained units of code reuse and can be regarded as a dual concept of protocols. Categories provide a way to encapsulate a set of related predicate declarations and definitions that do not represent a complete object and that only make sense when composed with other predicates. Categories may also be used to break a complex object in functional units. A category can be imported by several objects (without code duplication), including objects participating in prototype or class-based hierarchies. This concept of categories shares some ideas with Smalltalk-80 functional categories [Goldberg83], Flavors mix-ins [Moon86] (without necessarily implying multi-inheritance), and Objective-C categories [Cox86]. Categories may also complement existing objects, thus providing a hot patching mechanism inspired by the Objective-C categories functionality.
Logtalk defines a built-in category, core_messages, which is described at the end of this section.
Defining a new category¶
We can define a new category in the same way we write Prolog code: by
using a text editor. Logtalk source files may contain one or more
objects, categories, or protocols. If you prefer to define each entity
in its own source file, it is recommended that the file be named after
the category. By default, all Logtalk source files use the extension
.lgt but this is optional and can be set in the adapter files.
Intermediate Prolog source files (generated by the Logtalk compiler)
have, by default, a
_lgt suffix and a
.pl extension. Again, this
can be set to match the needs of a particular Prolog compiler in the
corresponding adapter file. For example, we may define a category named
documenting and save it in a
documenting.lgt source file that
will be compiled to a
documenting_lgt.pl Prolog file (depending on
the backend compiler, the names of the
intermediate Prolog files may include a directory hash and a process
identifier to prevent file name clashes when embedding Logtalk
applications or running parallel Logtalk processes).
Category names can be atoms or compound terms (when defining parametric categories). Objects, categories, and protocols share the same name space: we cannot have a category with the same name as an object or a protocol.
Category code (directives and predicates) is textually encapsulated by using two Logtalk directives: category/1-4 and end_category/0. The most simple category will be one that is self-contained, not depending on any other Logtalk entity:
:- category(Category). ... :- end_category.
If a category implements one or more protocols then the opening directive will be:
:- category(Category, implements([Protocol1, Protocol2, ...])). ... :- end_category.
A category may be defined as a composition of other categories by writing:
:- category(Category, extends([Category1, Category2, ...])). ... :- end_category.
This feature should only be used when extending a category without breaking its functional cohesion (for example, when a modified version of a category is needed for importing on several unrelated objects). The preferred way of composing several categories is by importing them into an object. When a category overrides a predicate defined in an extended category, the overridden definition can still be called by using the ^^/1 control construct.
Categories cannot inherit from objects. In addition, categories cannot define clauses for dynamic predicates. This restriction applies because a category can be imported by several objects and because we cannot use the database handling built-in methods with categories (messages can only be sent to objects). However, categories may contain declarations for dynamic predicates and they can contain predicates which handle dynamic predicates. For example:
:- category(attributes). :- public(attribute/2). :- public(set_attribute/2). :- public(del_attribute/2). :- private(attribute_/2). :- dynamic(attribute_/2). attribute(Attribute, Value) :- % called in the context of "self" ::attribute_(Attribute, Value). set_attribute(Attribute, Value) :- % retract old clauses in "self" ::retractall(attribute_(Attribute, _)), % assert new clause in "self" ::assertz(attribute_(Attribute, Value)). del_attribute(Attribute, Value) :- % retract clause in "self" ::retract(attribute_(Attribute, Value)). :- end_category.
Each object importing this category will have its own
private, dynamic predicate. The predicates
del_attribute/2 always access and modify
the dynamic predicate contained in the object receiving the
corresponding messages (i.e. self). But it’s also possible to define
predicates that handle dynamic predicates in the context of this
instead of self. For example:
:- category(attributes). :- public(attribute/2). :- public(set_attribute/2). :- public(del_attribute/2). :- private(attribute_/2). :- dynamic(attribute_/2). attribute(Attribute, Value) :- % call in the context of "this" attribute_(Attribute, Value). set_attribute(Attribute, Value) :- % retract old clauses in "this" retractall(attribute_(Attribute, _)), % asserts clause in "this" assertz(attribute_(Attribute, Value)). del_attribute(Attribute, Value) :- % retract clause in "this" retract(attribute_(Attribute, Value)). :- end_category.
When defining a category that declares and handles dynamic predicates, working in the context of this ties those dynamic predicates to the object importing the category while working in the context of self allows each object inheriting from the object that imports the category to have its own set of clauses for those dynamic predicates.
A category may also explicitly complement one or more existing objects, thus providing hot patching functionality inspired by Objective-C categories:
:- category(Category, complements([Object1, Object2, ....])). ... :- end_category.
This allows us to add missing directives (e.g. to define
aliases for complemented object predicates),
replace broken predicate definitions, add new predicates, and add protocols
and categories to existing objects without requiring access or modifications
to their source code. Common scenarios are adding logging or debugging
predicates to a set of objects. Complemented objects need to be compiled
with the complements compiler flag set
(to allow both patching and adding functionality) or
restrict (to allow
only adding new functionality). A complementing category takes preference
over a previously loaded complementing category for the same object thus
allowing patching a previous patch if necessary.
When replacing a predicate definition, it is possible to call the overriden
definition in the object from the new definition in the category by annoting
the goal with the experimental
@ prefix operator. This goal annotation
is only valid in the context of a complementing category and for compile time
bound goals. As an example, consider the following object:
:- object(bird). :- set_logtalk_flag(complements, allow). :- public(make_sound/0). make_sound :- write('Chirp, chirp!'), nl. :- end_object.
We can use the
@ goal annotation to e.g. wrap the original
predicate definition by writing:
:- category(logging, complements(bird)). make_sound :- write('Started making sound...'), nl, @make_sound, write('... finished making sound.'), nl. :- end_category.
After loading the object and the category, calling the
predicate will result in the following output:
| ?- bird::make_sound. Started making sound... Chirp, chirp! ... finished making sound. yes
Note that super calls from predicates defined in complementing categories lookup inherited definitions as if the calls were made from the complemented object instead of the category ancestors. This allows more comprehensive object patching. But it also means that, if you want to patch an object so that it imports a category that extends another category and uses super calls to access the extended category predicates, you will need to define a (possibly empty) complementing category that extends the category that you want to add.
An unfortunate consequence of allowing an object to be patched at runtime using a complementing category is that it disables the use of static binding optimizations for messages sent to the complemented object as it can always be later patched, thus rendering the static binding optimizations invalid.
Another important caveat is that, while a complementing category can replace a predicate definition, local callers of the replaced predicate will still call the non-patched version of the predicate. This is a consequence of the lack of a portable solution at the backend Prolog compiler level for replacing static predicate definitions.
Finding defined categories¶
We can find, by backtracking, all defined categories by using the current_category/1 built-in predicate with a unbound argument:
| ?- current_category(Category).
This predicate can also be used to test if a category is defined by calling it with a valid category identifier (an atom or a compound term).
Creating a new category in runtime¶
A category can be dynamically created at runtime by using the create_category/4 built-in predicate:
| ?- create_category(Category, Relations, Directives, Clauses).
The first argument should be either a variable or the name of the new category (a Prolog atom, which must not match with an existing entity name). The remaining three arguments correspond to the relations described in the opening category directive and to the category code contents (directives and clauses).
For example, the call:
| ?- create_category( ccc, [implements(ppp)], [private(bar/1)], [(foo(X):-bar(X)), bar(1), bar(2)] ).
is equivalent to compiling and loading the category:
:- category(ccc, implements(ppp)). :- dynamic. :- private(bar/1). foo(X) :- bar(X). bar(1). bar(2). :- end_category.
If we need to create a lot of (dynamic) categories at runtime, then is best to define a metaclass or a prototype with a predicate that will call this built-in predicate in order to provide more sophisticated behavior.
Abolishing an existing category¶
Dynamic categories can be abolished using the abolish_category/1 built-in predicate:
| ?- abolish_category(Category).
The argument must be an identifier of a defined dynamic category, otherwise an error will be thrown.
Category directives are used to define category properties, to document a category dependencies on other Logtalk entities, and to load the contents of files into a category.
As usually happens with Prolog code, a category can be either static or dynamic. A category created during the execution of a program is always dynamic. A category defined in a file can be either dynamic or static. Dynamic categories are declared by using the dynamic/0 directive in the category source code:
The directive must precede any predicate directives or clauses. Please be aware that using dynamic code results in a performance hit when compared to static code. We should only use dynamic categories when these need to be abolished during program execution.
Loading files into a category¶
Logtalk provides two sets of built-in predicates that enable us to query the system about the possible relationships that a category can have with other entities.
| ?- implements_protocol(Category, Protocol, Scope).
or, if we also want to consider inherited protocols:
| ?- conforms_to_protocol(Category, Protocol, Scope).
Note that, if we use a unbound first argument, we will need to use the current_category/1 built-in predicate to ensure that the returned entity is a category and not an object.
To find which objects import which categories we can use the imports_category/2-3 built-in predicates:
| ?- imports_category(Object, Category).
or, if we also want to know the importation scope:
| ?- imports_category(Object, Category, Scope).
Note that a category may be imported by several objects.
To find which categories extend other categories we can use the extends_category/2-3 built-in predicates:
| ?- extends_category(Category1, Category2).
or, if we also want to know the extension scope:
| ?- extends_category(Category1, Category2, Scope).
Note that a category may be extended by several categories.
To find which categories explicitly complement existing objects we can use the complements_object/2 built-in predicate:
| ?- complements_object(Category, Object).
Note that a category may explicitly complement several objects.
We can find the properties of defined categories by calling the built-in predicate category_property/2:
| ?- category_property(Category, Property).
The following category properties are supported:
- The category is static
- The category is dynamic (and thus can be abolished in runtime by calling the abolish_category/1 built-in predicate)
- The category is a built-in category (and thus always available)
- Absolute path of the source file defining the category (if applicable)
- Basename and directory of the source file defining the category (if
Directoryalways ends with a
- Source file begin and end lines of the category definition (if applicable)
- Messages sent from the category generate events
- Source data available for the category
- List of public predicates and operators declared by the category
- List of protected predicates and operators declared by the category
- List of private predicates and operators declared by the category
- List of properties for a predicate declared by the category
- List of properties for a predicate defined by the category
includes(Predicate, Entity, Properties)
- List of properties for an object multifile predicate that are defined
in the specified entity (the properties include
Linebeing the begin line of the first multifile predicate clause)
provides(Predicate, Entity, Properties)
- List of properties for other entity multifile predicate that are
defined in the category (the properties include
Linebeing the begin line of the first multifile predicate clause)
- List of properties for a predicate alias declared by the category
(the properties include
Linebeing the begin line of the alias directive)
- List of properties for predicate calls made by the category (
Callis either a predicate indicator or a control construct such as
^^/1with a predicate indicator as argument; note that
Callmay not be ground in case of a call to a control construct where its argument is only know at runtime; the properties include
Aliasbeing predicate indicators and
Linebeing the begin line of the predicate clause or directive making the call)
- List of properties for dynamic predicate updates (and also access
clause/2predicate) made by the object (
Predicateis either a predicate indicator or a control construct such as
:/2with a predicate indicator as argument; note that
Predicatemay not be ground in case of a control construct argument only know at runtime; the properties include
Updaterbeing a (possibly multifile) predicate indicator,
Aliasbeing a predicate indicator, and
Linebeing the begin line of the predicate clause or directive updating the predicate)
- Total number of predicate clauses defined in the category (includes both user-defined clauses and auxiliary clauses generated by the compiler or by the expansion hooks but does not include clauses for multifile predicates defined for other entities or clauses for the category own multifile predicates contributed by other entities)
- Total number of predicate rules defined in the category (includes both user-defined rules and auxiliary rules generated by the compiler or by the expansion hooks but does not include rules for multifile predicates defined for other entities or rules for the category own multifile predicates contributed by other entities)
- Total number of user-defined predicate clauses defined in the category (does not include clauses for multifile predicates defined for other entities or clauses for the category own multifile predicates contributed by other entities)
- Total number of user-defined predicate rules defined in the category (does not include rules for multifile predicates defined for other entities or rules for the category own multifile predicates contributed by other entities)
Some properties such as line numbers are only available when the category is
defined in a source file compiled with the source_data
flag turned on. Moreover, line numbers are only supported in
backend Prolog compilers
that provide access to the start line of a read term. When such support is
not available, the value
-1 is returned for the start and end lines.
The properties that return the number of clauses (rules) report the clauses (rules) textually defined in the object for both multifile and non-multifile predicates. Thus, these numbers exclude clauses (rules) for multifile predicates contributed by other entities.
Any number of objects can import a category. In addition, an object may import any number of categories. The syntax is very simple:
:- object(Object, imports([Category1, Category2, ...])). ... :- end_object.
To make all public predicates imported via a category protected or to make all public and protected predicates private we prefix the category’s name with the corresponding keyword:
:- object(Object, imports(private::Category)). ... :- end_object.
:- object(Object, imports(protected::Category)). ... :- end_object.
Omitting the scope keyword is equivalent to writing:
:- object(Object, imports(public::Category)). ... :- end_object.
Calling category predicates¶
Category predicates can be called from within an object by sending a message to self or using a super call. Consider the following category:
:- category(output). :- public(out/1). out(X) :- write(X), nl. :- end_category.
out/1 can be called from within an object importing
the category by simply sending a message to self. For example:
:- object(worker, imports(output)). ... do(Task) :- execute(Task, Result), ::out(Result). ... :- end_object.
This is the recommended way of calling a category predicate that can be specialized/overridden in a descendant object as the predicate definition lookup will start from self.
A direct call to a predicate definition found in an imported category can be made using the ^^/1 control construct. For example:
:- object(worker, imports(output)). ... do(Task) :- execute(Task, Result), ^^out(Result). ... :- end_object.
This alternative should only be used when the user knows a priori that the category predicates will not be specialized or redefined by descendant objects of the object importing the category. Its advantage is that, when the optimize flag is turned on, the Logtalk compiler will try to optimize the calls by using static binding. When dynamic binding is used due to e.g. the lack of sufficient information at compilation time, the performance is similar to calling the category predicate using a message to self (in both cases a predicate lookup caching mechanism is used).
Category predicates can be parameterized in the same way as object predicates by using a compound term as the category identifier where all the arguments of the compound term are variables. These variables, the category parameters, can be accessed by calling the parameter/2 or this/1 built-in local methods in the category predicate clauses or by using parameter variables. Category parameter values can be defined by the importing objects. For example:
:- object(speech(Season, Event), imports([dress(Season), speech(Event)])). ... :- end_object.
Note that access to category parameters is only possible from within the category. In particular, calls to the this/1 built-in local method from category predicates always access the importing object identifier (and thus object parameters, not category parameters).
Logtalk defines a built-in category that is always available for any application.