This library provides a dictionary (also know as associative array, map, or symbol table) protocol and binary tree, AVL tree, and Red–Black tree implementations. The different representations of a dictionary should be regarded as opaque terms and only accessed using the library predicates.

API documentation

Open the ../../docs/library_index.html#dictionaries link in a web browser.


To load all entities in this library, load the loader.lgt file:

| ?- logtalk_load(dictionaries(loader)).


To test this library predicates, load the tester.lgt file:

| ?- logtalk_load(dictionaries(tester)).


First, select the dictionary implementation that you want to use. For cases where the number of elements is relatively small and performance is not critical, bintree can be a good choice. For other cases, avltree or rbtree are likely better choices. If you want to compare the performance of the implementations, either define an object alias or use a uses/2 directive so that you can switch between implementations by simply changing the alias definition or the first argument of the directive. Note that you can switch between implementations at runtime without code changes by using a parameter variable in the first argument of a uses/2 directive.

Dictionary keys should preferable be ground terms. If the keys contain variables, the user must ensure that any instantiation of those variables when calling this library predicates will not affect the key ordering.

To create a new dictionary, you can use the new/1 predicate. For example:

| ?- avltree::new(Dictionary).
Dictionary = ...

You can also create a new dictionary from a list of key-value pairs by using the as_dictionary/2 predicate. For example:

| ?- avltree::as_dictionary([a-1,c-3,b-2], Dictionary).
Dictionary = ...

Several predicates are provided for inserting key-value pairs, lookup key-value pairs updating the value associated with a key, and deleting key-value pairs. For example:

| ?- avltree::(
        insert(Dictionary0, a, 1, Dictionary1),
        update(Dictionary1, a, 2, Dictionary2),
        lookup(a, Value, Dictionary2)
Dictionary0 = ...,
Dictionary1 = ...,
Dictionary2 = ...,
Value = 2

For details on these and other provided predicates, consult the library API documentation.


The AVL tree implementation is an adaptation to Logtalk of the assoc SWI-Prolog library authored by R.A.O’Keefe, L.Damas, V.S.Costa, Glenn Burgess, Jiri Spitz, and Jan Wielemaker. Additional predicates authored by Paulo Moura.

The Red–Black tree implementation is an adaptation to Logtalk of the rbtrees Prolog library authored by Vitor Santos Costa.